Architectural geometry services extend from preliminary design 3D model construction and layout of the surface patterns, through geometric analysis and rationalization analysis, to final provision of manufacturing production data.
Construction of 3D Models
In the early stages of design, we assist clients in constructing a 3D model based on sketches or schematic drawings, and the customer’s own concepts may be used to deepen the development of this model. After undergoing appearance adjustment and refining, a more realistic model can be constructed for practical application.
Design and Layout of Surface Pattern
We utilize pattern layout computation technology to make flat or three-dimensional unit patterns for architectural design. This allows for rapid covering of free-form surfaces in accordance with production requirements pertaining to size constraints, size gradients, composing pattern arrangements and so on.
This helps architects carry out a variety of pattern layout design evaluations within a short time period. Also, through computerized logic operations it assists architects in free-form design of a totem pattern with generative style (unlike traditional forms of rule texture pattern).
Geometric analysis and rationalization analysis
In conforming with the original design concept of the architect’s architectural aesthetics, this proposes reasonable solutions for reduced production costs and rapid manufacturing assembly. Through geometrical analysis and computing layout, it uses planar panels or single-curved panels to compose surface layout and reduces the number of double-curved panels used to construct free-form surface modeling.
After undergoing precise division calculations and technical analysis arrangement, repeating equivalent-sized unit material may be utilized. This significantly reduces the cost and time required for mass customization.
Manufacturing Production Data
In the later stages of the design phase, we provide customers with processing and production data, including services such as unrolled unit surface data, statistics on the number of units, coordinates data and so on.
The professional staff members of HKR Engineering Consultants Co., Ltd. have over 15 years of experience in various types of special 3D modeling façade design integration, as well as in the exchange and integration of technology for state-of-the-art 3D model digital analysis. Through the integration of 3D model façade design and analysis techniques, we can provide higher-quality design services for special form appearance, and maintain effective control over associated quality and costs.
Our range of services includes modeling of all kinds of special form façades including: glass curtain walls, metal curtain walls, unitized curtain walls, structural glazing, stick curtain walls, double glazing curtain walls, ventilation curtain walls, 3D forming aluminum curved walls and structures and 3D forming steel curved walls and structures.
Special form façade system design
3D Geometry (Geometric Analysis) technology + curtain wall assembly and manufacturing and application technology + CFD (heat and wind) data analysis + structural data analysis + materials applications + acoustic noise analysis + aesthetic requirements + 15 years of experience in the design of special form façades both domestically and abroad.
Special form joint design and optimization analysis
Special form or curved curtain wall joint design, special form or curved roof joints, special form or curved structural glazing joint design, special form or curved aluminum wall joint design, special form or curved steel wall joints.
3D special form façade systems analysis and results
Special form façade system design → unrolled technology to optimize the layout → 3D construction drawings → coordinate data→ 3D manufacturing drawings
The fundamental purpose of a building is to act as a shield against a changing external natural environment so as to create a stable and more comfortable interior space conducive to human life and habitation. As such, consideration of the external and internal environment does indeed constitute an important fundamental aspect of architectural design. Given the considerable progress made by modern computerized numerical analysis, designers can account for a variety of different environmental factors and influences early in the design process to conduct precise and comprehensive analysis, evaluation and mapping in order to achieve greater excellence in the architectural results.
I. Environmental air flow analysis:
With ordinary wind meteorological data, a specific location is designated and measured at a representative data station. However, details of wind phenomena in an individual local area are often subject to the influence of nearby buildings, local topography and so on. CFD environmental air flow analysis offers more complete information on wind strength and direction to serve as a basis for assessment of the base environment.
In addition, CFD environmental air flow analysis can be used to conduct analysis and forecasting of regional proliferation of industrial waste gas and pollutants, for use as a reference in regional planning configuration, disaster response plans, etc.
II. Pedestrian air flow analysis:
In today’s environment of overcrowding in inadequate spaces, the area that surrounds a building is typically reserved for pedestrian and motor traffic. When a new building is to be erected, there is a question of whether it will interact with local environmental air flows that may create inappropriate wind speed or wind direction that will result in pedestrian discomfort, unsafe driving, etc. Such issues must be considered in detail from the beginning of the design phase.
Using CFD pedestrian air flow analysis, we can quickly analyze details of pedestrian air flow generated by an individual building design. Through corresponding review and adjustment, we can thus avoid any adverse consequences that would be difficult to change after project completion. This addresses a concern that arises fairly frequently in an urban context.
III. Building wind load analysis:
For high-rise buildings or those with special forms or special façade construction, wind load often occupies a significant proportion of structural loads. Accurate precision wind load analysis thus directly corresponds to the structure’s design and structural safety. CFD wind load analysis offers fast, precise presentation of the various wind conditions and the resulting wind load on the structure. Analytical results not only provide total load force, but also include load distribution across the structure. This can help secure more accurate local designs.
IV. Building exterior heat load analysis:
Most of a building’s heat load source originates externally, and the thermal performance of the exterior walls is a decisive factor in determining its energy consumption performance. Moreover, an exterior’s wall thermal performance is closely associated with exterior wall material, size, shape, structure and even the external environment. Using CFD computer simulation analysis, designers can now undertake precision evaluation and design in advance for external wall performance, thereby implementing energy demands in the design phase.
This analysis is frequently used to assist in cases including large glazing curtain walls, double glazing curtain walls, curved curtain walls, special shade structures, semi-ventilated double wall structures and so on.
V. Building internal environmental control analysis:
The interior of a building often uses environmental control systems to control the internal environment, addressing the need for appropriate internal temperature, humidity, air freshness and so on. For large spaces such as stadiums, exhibition halls, auditoriums, museums, libraries, etc., internal spatial characteristics often give rise to a specially-formed micro-climate; and most of them have unique design characteristics that make it inappropriate to directly follow past designs. Furthermore, the environmental control system complexity of buildings on such a large scale makes it difficult to go by intuition and rules of thumb alone to accurately infer the environmental effects. This in turn greatly increases the risk of defects being discovered after completion of the project.
Through the use of modern CFD and powerful computing capabilities, designers can address the inspection certificate in regard to analysis of the effects for environment control design. They can confirm the state of the environment in all areas within the building location and gain early feedback for design modifications. This significantly reduces hard-to-solve problems that are discovered only after completion of the project, and it can be used as an important basis for more energy-efficient design.
VI. Consultancy services for environmental heat analysis in residential design:
1. Environmental/pedestrian airflow analysis: Environmental airflow analysis in summer and winter conditions for the building itself and for adjacent buildings within a certain
2. Thermal environmental impact analysis of plants: Thermal environmental impact analysis of the impact of planting foliage on buildings in the surrounding environment.
3. Building wind load analysis: Multidirectional wind load analysis on the building mass.
4. Building shell thermal performance analysis: Thermal performance analysis on the building’s external wall curtain (radiation shielding, thermal resistance, etc.)
1. Residential bathroom ventilation performance analysis
Bathrooms are important places for peoples’ washing and rejuvenation, and the effectiveness of bathroom air conditioning system design has a certain impact on associated enjoyment and comfort. A well designed system can provide a comfortable temperature, moderate humidity and a sufficient amount of oxygen in the environment so as to allow users to relax in safety.
2. Comfort analysis of residential interior air conditioning systems
Modern residential inhabitants pay attention to the comfort of their indoor living environments. When air-conditioning system configuration is conducted in accordance with careful scientific computer analysis of feedback, it can ensure uniform and pleasant indoor temperatures. During the body’s movement in the course of indoor activities, it does not feel the discomfort of low or high temperatures. In addition to proper airflow design that allows for uniform and stable temperatures, proper fan speed control also ensures that the in habitant are in the most comfortable range. In addition, year-round high humidity in Taiwan’s subtropical climate is also an important factor in causing discomfort. Accurate analysis of the air conditioning system can ensure appropriate regulation of humidity, not only aiding bodily comfort but also helping to better maintain residential appointments including furniture, clothing, artwork and so on.
3. Comfort analysis of public space environments
Modern houses generally tend to have spacious open hall spaces to serve as a public space and as a buffer going from the outside into the private residence area. The comfort of this space often directly governs the first feelings and impressions of people entering the building, making it an important factor in the image of the overall building, and at the same time it affects the willingness of household residents to relax in this space. Due to the natural convection and free-flowing air currents, the thermal environment of large spaces is more complex; in the design phase, sophisticated Computation Fluid Dynamics is the only way to ensure the creation of a pleasant environment.
4. Gymnasium air quality and comfort analysis
Since a gymnasium may hold a large number of persons engaged in high-intensity sports, the requirements of the internal environment are more stringent than that of more general spaces. Improper regulation of temperature, humidity, carbon dioxide or oxygen may cause mild discomfort among athletes and cause them to stop exercising and reduce their willingness to use the space. In serious cases, this discomfort may result in fainting, shock and so on, thus endangering personal safety. We should strive to avoid these problems in the design stage.
5. Indoor pool/spa gas safety and comfort analysis
Because of massive volumes of water stored within an enclosed space, indoor chlorinated swimming pools, excessive concentrations of volatile chlorine will affect human health and sense of smell. In addition, excessive evaporation of water vapor from swimming pools or spa equipment can also cause feelings of stuffiness and difficulty breathing, creating an undesirable user experience. With CFD-aided design, we can accurately check and determine whether the above situations can be avoided in the design phase.
6. Parking lot air quality environmental analysis
For indoor parking in confined spaces, vehicles emit large quantities of harmful gases and any failure to carry out immediate and effective regulation not only causes external discomfort but can have a direct and harmful impact on human life and safety. CFD-aided design can help precisely determine the most effective ventilation configurations in order to provide high-quality comfort and safety in the parking environment.
7. Elevator tower pistoning effect analysis
For buildings with more than a certain number of residential floors, high-speed elevators will produce a significant pistoning effect that generates a pressure shock wave that impacts the windows and curtain walls surrounding the elevator tower, as well as causing vibrations in the elevator itself. CFD analysis and design can detect this phenomenon and guide appropriate design steps to avoid it such as through holes, pressure relief and so on.
Architectural acoustics design consultancy services provides architectural acoustics planning and performance analysis, vibration control programs inside and outside the building, construction noise control and design improvement, indoor space quality assessment and architectural acoustics design, supervision, operation of acceptance and overall acoustics consultancy services. In the design stage for the entire building, noise control design and planning will prevent the need for spending on future unnecessary noise improvement projects or even situations that cannot be remedied.
– Acoustic design consultancy for high class mansions, high-level hotels and public buildings.
– Interior acoustics design consultancy for musical venues such as concert halls, theaters, audio-visual rooms and so on.
– Acoustic performance planning and design for building exterior curtain walls, internal compartments and floors with soundproofing, sound-absorption and so on.
– Noise planning and assessment for noise source devices in construction of air-conditioning equipment, electrical equipment, etc.
– Vibration isolation planning and evaluation for vibration source devices in construction of air-conditioning equipment, electrical equipment, etc.
– Sound design and planning for indoor spaces, for items including private conversation, indoor voice clarity, indoor background noise and so on
Based on accumulated years of professional analytical skills and practical project experience, data analysis and computer simulations illustrate the effectiveness of information security, environmental quality, energy efficiency, geometry, acoustic noise, indoor comfort, etc. in order to achieve sustainable building design concepts from the initial design to give architects in details of their designs. This provides valid data and data analysis in order to assist architects in determining what design direction to follow, going beyond the traditional regulatory style standards and moving toward a data performance style of architectural practice.
Constructing accurate 3D models for building technology integration: 3D models respectively include computerized numerical analysis of heat flow (CFD), structure, acoustic noise analysis, geometric analysis, and façade design. This facilitates fast and efficient communication between the various professional fields. Furthermore, the quality and efficiency of a building’s design and integration is significantly enhanced using IFC format conversion for BIM (building information modeling) use.
Safety Performance: structural safety and functional relationship with the environment.
Environmental Quality: environmental air flow around the building and the relationship between heat and buildings.
Energy Efficiency: building façades, curtain wall insulation and ventilation performance evaluation.
Geometric Form: building form and function, and environment optimization.
Acoustic Noise: Noise value definition in the living environment.
Interior Comfort: humidity, carbon dioxide, dust and other air quality control issues.